济南电视台著名主持人老万为您揭秘王硕士臭豆腐制作全过程:
王硕士臭豆腐制作主要分为三部分:臭汤制作,泡菜制作,臭豆腐制作。
臭汤制作:王硕士臭豆腐是北方自己的臭汤制作基地的臭豆腐。臭汤采用由南方引进的苋菜,经过精心培育,选取成熟的苋菜杆,加入竹笋、雪菜、大料等,再添加陈年老卤,经过6―12个月的天然发酵,方能成为腌制臭豆腐的臭汤。
泡菜制作:我们的泡菜融合了四川泡菜和韩国泡菜做法,包含酸、辣、甜、鲜四种味道,选用鲜嫩的卷心菜,切丝,放盐腌制半小时,控水,然后放入白醋、白糖、味精、辣椒油、蒜、鲜辣酱(由本公司辣椒基地制作)等,搅拌均匀,酸辣爽口的泡菜就可以了。
臭豆腐制作:王硕士臭豆腐使用的是颗粒饱满,生长期较长的非转进因东北大豆,经过再次筛选,然后磨浆、点卤、模具压制、切割,制成豆腐原胚,放入臭汤中腌制6―12小时(根据季节不一样时间不一样),再冲洗,码放整齐装盒,然后放入油中炸至色泽金黄,外酥里嫩,再将秘制的酱料抹匀,放上爽口的泡菜,正宗的王硕士臭豆腐就可以出炉了。
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臭豆腐是怎么臭起来的?你知道吗?
臭豆腐对于很多人来说,应该都是一种又爱又恨的食物,那么你知道臭豆腐是怎么臭起来的吗?

Stinky tofu is a kind of food that many people love and hate. Do you know how stinky tofu smells?

从食品分类的角度看,臭豆腐属于豆腐乳一族,常见的酱豆腐(红方,红腐乳)就是它的兄弟,这些豆腐乳的制作方法因各地气候、风俗、人们的口味爱好不同而不同。大体上来说,豆腐乳的制作方法分微生物培养型与腌渍型两大类,其中,用微生物培养的豆腐乳又可分为真菌型豆腐乳和细菌型豆腐乳。臭豆腐的制作工艺因此分为两种:腌渍型工艺和微生物发酵型制作工艺。腌渍型工艺的臭豆腐以长沙臭豆腐为代表。制作这种臭豆腐时,首先要用溶解的青矾水浸泡豆腐坯,青矾的主要成分是硫酸亚铁,起上色和产生臭豆腐特殊气味的作用。浸泡一段时间之后,人们就会把配置好的臭卤倒进去,用卤水再浸泡一段时间,当这些豆腐坯成形入味之后,就把豆腐坯捞出来,沥干,油炸,再刷上一层调味料就可以吃了。在以前,人们还有一种用腌制雪里红的咸菜臭水来浸泡豆腐坯的制作方法,但是这种制作方法大约需要15~30天,对于继续销售臭豆腐的商家而言,时间就是金钱,现在很少被采用了。

From the point of view of food classification, stinky tofu belongs to the group of tofu. The common soybean curd (red square, red curd) is its brother. The methods of making stinky tofu vary according to the climate, customs and people's tastes. Generally speaking, the methods of making tofu milk can be divided into two types: microbial culture and pickling. Among them, tofu milk cultured by microorganism can be divided into fungal tofu and bacterial tofu. The processing technology of stinky tofu can be divided into two types: pickling process and microbial fermentation process. The malodorous tofu of pickling process is represented by Changsha malodorous tofu. When making this kind of stinky tofu, the first step is to soak the tofu billet with dissolved alum water. The main component of alum is ferrous sulfate, which plays the role of coloring and producing the special smell of stinky tofu. After soaking for a period of time, people will pour the prepared stench into the brine and then soak it in the brine for a period of time. When the beancurd is formed and tasted, the beancurd will be salvaged, drained, fried, and then brushed with a layer of seasoning to eat. In the past, there was a method of making tofu billets with pickled snow-red salted vegetable stinky water, but this method takes about 15 to 30 days. For the merchants who continue to sell stinky tofu, time is money, and it is seldom used now.

而微生物发酵型臭豆腐的制作工艺就麻烦多了,这种臭豆腐是从大豆开始准备的。首先人们对大豆进行筛选、浸泡、冲洗、研磨、除渣,将大豆制成豆浆,再制成豆腐脑,然后压榨成形、切块,到了这一步时,不同的商家就会在豆腐块上接种自己家独有的细菌或真菌,然后任其生长,当豆腐块被这些微生物“滋润”得差不多,已经长满毛的时候,商家再把这些毛搓掉,进一步腌制,过段时间再浇上自己制作的卤水后就可以装坛了,装好坛的臭豆腐一般不会立刻出售,而是让它在坛内继续发酵一段时间,最终获得成品臭豆腐。用这种工艺制出来的臭豆腐质地软,更好吃,但也需要花费更多的时间和经历。

The production process of microbial fermented stinky tofu is much more troublesome. This stinky tofu is prepared from soybeans. First, people screen, soak, rinse, grind and remove residue from soybeans, make soybean milk, then make tofu brain, then press and form, cut into pieces. At this stage, different businesses will inoculate their own unique bacteria or fungi on tofu blocks, and then let them grow. When tofu blocks are "moistened" by these microorganisms, they will grow full of hair. Businessmen can then rub off these wool and further marinate it. After pouring their own brine over a period of time, they can install the jar. The stinky tofu in the jar will not be sold immediately, but will continue to ferment in the jar for a period of time, and eventually get the finished stinky tofu. The stinky tofu produced by this process is soft and tastier, but it also takes more time and experience.

虽然不同的人对臭豆腐褒贬不一,但不可否认的是,臭豆腐是一种很有营养的食物。首先,大豆的营养价值就不必说了,富含蛋白质、微量元素,对身体很好;其次,臭豆腐是对大豆的再加工,发酵后的大豆内的一些蛋白质会被微生物分解为更小的氨基酸,有利于人体吸收;第三,微生物在生长时还会产生一些维生素等物质,而维生素是维持人体正常生理代谢的必需品。

Although different people have different opinions on stinky tofu, it is undeniable that stinky tofu is a very nutritious food. First of all, the nutritional value of soybeans need not be said, rich in protein, trace elements, good for the body; Second, stinky tofu is the reprocessing of soybeans, fermented soybean protein will be decomposed into smaller amino acids, conducive to human absorption; Third, microorganisms will produce some vitamins and other substances while growing, and vitamins are to maintain the human body. Necessary for normal physiological metabolism.

不过即便如此,臭豆腐的食用风险我们也不得不考虑到。对于腌渍型工艺的臭豆腐,在腌渍的时候会用到青矾,而一些不良商家为了省钱往往会用工业青矾代替食用青矾,这些工业青矾在生产时会混有很多重金属,食用后会导致腹痛、恶心、呕吐,甚至肺积水、休克等中毒症状。更有甚者还用国家不允许添加的硫化钠代替青矾进行染色、入味,这都严重威胁到了消费者的健康。而发酵型臭豆腐虽然不用青矾,但在接种微生物发酵的时候,如果消毒措施、密封措施做得不好,就容易引入有毒细菌,比如大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌等。它们在被人体食用后同样会引起疾病。即使生产没问题了,销售又可能是个隐患,很多油炸臭豆腐都喜欢开在学校、小区门口,紧临马路,一方面,空气中的脏东西会污染到食物,另一方面,长时间不换的油有可能在氧化之后变为致癌物质。

But even so, we have to take into account the risk of stinky tofu. For the stinky tofu of pickling process, alum will be used when pickling, and some bad traders often use industrial alum instead of edible alum in order to save money. These industrial alum will be mixed with many heavy metals in production, which will lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, even pulmonary hydrops, shock and other poisoning symptoms after eating. Moreover, the state does not allow the addition of sodium sulfide to replace alum for dyeing and tasting, which seriously threatens the health of consumers. While fermented stinky tofu does not need alum, it is easy to introduce toxic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, if disinfection and sealing measures are not well done when inoculated with microorganisms for fermentation. They can also cause disease when eaten by humans. Even if there is no problem in production, sales may be a hidden danger. Many fried stinky tofu like to open at the school, community doors, close to the road. On the one hand, dirty things in the air will pollute food, on the other hand, long-term non-replacement of oil may become carcinogens after oxidation.

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